Previous research has shown that token economy systems and response cost procedures are effective in reducing disruptive behaviors in classrooms and increasing academic engagement. Few studies have compared the effectiveness of combining these two classroom management techniques, examined academic performance, and directly observed academic engaged time. The current study compared the effectiveness of four conditions: baseline, response cost procedure, token economy system, and a combination condition among two, first grade classrooms in a small town in central Wisconsin using direct observation and permanent product of a three question quiz. Behaviors assessed included problem behaviors in the classroom, academic engaged time, academic performance, and student and teacher preference. An alternating treatments design was utilized in which one of the four conditions were employed each day during the math lesson in a randomized predetermined order.


Daniel Houlihan

First Committee Member

Kathy Bertsch

Second Committee Member

Kevin J. Filter

Third Committee Member

Teresa Wallace

Date of Degree




Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Social and Behavioral Sciences

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



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