This quantitative study explored the roles of general self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, and motivation and its effect on at-risk students' course failures. Deci and Ryan's (1996) Self-Determination Theory and Bandura's (1977) Self-Efficacy Theory were explored as well as the risk factors of at-risk students. A multiple regression analysis determined that there was not a significant relationship between the number of courses failed and the independent variables: general self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, and motivation. The moderator variable of working at-risk students was found to negatively impact the number of courses failed. While there are some limitations, this study contributes to the growing body of literature about at-risk students and way to improve the academic achievements of this population. In addition, recommendations for practitioners and future research are discussed.


Jennifer Pepperell

First Committee Member

Richard Auger

Second Committee Member

Karin Lindstrom Bremer

Third Committee Member

Aaron Jeffrey

Date of Degree




Document Type



Doctor of Education (EdD)


Counseling and Student Personnel



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



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