Examinations that consist of varied formats are distributed to students across educational institutions to measure individual performance and achievement. Previous research studies that investigated the effects of cramming and the usage of different exam formats were examined and summarized in a comprehensive literature review. Findings suggest that students commonly use the cramming study strategy as a method of preparation for exams. Yet the effectiveness of cramming remains a subject of controversy among educators. Little to no research has been conducted to determine whether cramming is engaged in response to a given exam format. This author concludes from a review of the literature that there may be a correlation between cramming engagement and examination format. There is no evidence to corroborate this hypothesis, but implications for further research are suggested.


Daniel Houlihan

First Committee Member

Jasper Hunt

Second Committee Member

Barry Ries

Date of Degree




Document Type



Master of Science (MS)


Cross-Disciplinary Studies


Graduate Studies and Research

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.