Is Smoking Related to Body Image Satisfaction, Stress, and Self-Esteem in Young Adults?

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Objectives: To examine the association of smoking and gender with body image satisfaction, perceived stress, and self-esteem in young adults. Methods: Respondents completed a survey consisting of Perceived Stress Scale, Body-Areas Satisfaction Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Current smokers (n = 483) and never smokers (n = 973) are included. Results: Smoking and female gender were independently associated with higher perceived stress (P < 0.001). Female gender was associated with lower body image satisfaction and lower self-esteem (P < 0.001). Current smoking was associated with lower self-esteem (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Smoking treatment should include stress management and self-esteem and body image improvement.

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American Journal of Health Behavior