Intracellular Storage and Metabolic Activation of Retinoids
This chapter discusses newly detected retinoid metabolic processes in lipid droplets (LDs) and presents models of potential retinoid metabolons in LDs, which remain to be tested. LDs can serve as one intracellular site of activating retinol into the autacoid (locally-acting molecule, or “local hormone”) retinoic acid (RA). The possible function of multilocular LDs as autacoid-generating structures likely contributes to their impact on metabolism beyond fuel homeostasis. Errors of LD-mediated metabolism cause or contribute to various diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease, inflammation, cancer, diabetes, lipid storage myopathy, and atherogenesis. Association of retinoid homeostasis with LD logically provokes interest into the relationship between RA biosynthesis by LDs, LD functional impairment, and the onset or exacerbation of these diseases. LDs serve as a major (but not sole) site for controlling retinoid homeostasis (not just RE storage), and perhaps RA biosynthesis.
Chemistry and Geology
The Retinoids: Biology, Biochemistry, and Disease
Napoli, J.L. and Krois, C.R. (2015). Intracellular storage and metabolic activation of retinoids. In P. Dollé and K. Neiderreither (Eds.), The retinoids: Biology, biochemistry, and disease (pp. 57-73). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118628003.ch3
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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.