This thesis examines Rwandan University EFL teachers' perceived difficulties in implementing Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). The data were collected using an online survey questionnaire that was completed by 16 teachers. The results indicated that participants faced several challenges including overly large classes, students' lack of opportunities to use English outside the classroom, the students' tendency to always use their L1 in pair and group work, students' passive learning style and dependence on the teacher, students' low proficiency level in English, insufficient time allotted to English, and teachers' little time to develop CLT materials mainly due to a large number of students taught and heavy workloads. In addition to these problematic issues that were generally rated as important problems (each with a mean rating of at least 3.50 out of 5), the study showed that the issues of English not being given the same value as other subjects and a lack of teaching facilities, equipment, and materials were also challenging at some universities. Based on the study findings and the participants' suggestions, the Government of Rwanda, the Ministry of Education, and colleges should 1) train enough teachers of English and provide regular in-service training opportunities to practicing teachers, 2) avail enough language teaching facilities, equipment, and materials, 3) promote the use of CLT from early levels of education, and 4) reduce the number of students in language classes. Teachers can also use various strategies to minimize different problematic issues encountered in the implementation of CLT.


Glen Poupore

Committee Member

Sarah Henderson Lee

Date of Degree




Document Type



Master of Arts (MA)




Arts and Humanities

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



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