Anxiety is common in pregnancies that occur after a miscarriage or perinatal loss and can lead to detrimental effects on the mother and fetus. The objective of this literature review is to examine whether caring-based nursing actions and anxiety-reducing interventions decrease the self-report of anxiety more than self-management alone. A literature search of four journal databases was conducted using related keywords which produced 429 studies for consideration. A total of 57 studies were reviewed for a match with the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were included in the review provided knowledge of anxiety in pregnancy after loss, discussed anxiety self-management techniques, and/or presented efficacious interventions to reduce the anxiety. These interventions included caring-based nursing actions along with relaxation, journaling, and using “I” messages. Studies were excluded if they did not focus on anxiety in combination with a subsequent pregnancy after a loss. The caring-based nursing actions combined with the anxiety-reducing interventions lowered anxiety more than women performing self-management techniques alone. This knowledge should empower care providers to utilize caring-based nursing actions and teach anxiety-reducing activities in order to assist women experiencing pregnancy after a loss to reduce their self-reported feelings of anxiety.


Amy Haycraft

Date of Degree




Document Type



Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)


School of Nursing


Allied Health and Nursing



Rights Statement

In Copyright