The rapid growth of world population along with the sprawl growth of towns and suburbanization, has affected the human life and its surrounding nature dramatically. The fact is this level of growth is not sustainable with the current patterns of development. Most cities all around the world are designed in a way that encourages car dependency which is harming the environment and human health.

During the past decade, urban planners formulate new principles of land use development to preserve the environment and protect public health, safety and general welfare of the citizens. These concepts are characterized by some movements such as sustainable communities, new urbanism, green urbanism, and livable places, pedestrian and transit-oriented development, healthy communities, retrofitting suburbia, brownfield redevelopment, community revitalization, and smart growth. The goal of most these movements is to reduce the amount of reliance on motor vehicles to have a sustainable community. One of the newly developed ideologies which decreases the reliance on motor vehicles, is a Car-less city. A car-less city is a city that is designed to remove cars from the streets. This may sound unrealistic in the beginning, but in fact, many cities all around the world, are shifting their mobility solution away from automobile toward more environmentally friendly methods. The intent of this thesis is to study ways to minimize the use of motor vehicles and their negative effects on societies and propose different means of transportation that are environmentally friendly. The materials were gathered from secondary sources and by reviewing similar cases in Iran, Europe and United States to analyze how these cities could help us to preserve the environment.


Miriam Porter

Committee Member

Beth Heidelberg

Date of Degree




Document Type



Master of Arts (MA)


Urban and Regional Studies


Social and Behavioral Sciences

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



Rights Statement

In Copyright