Managing student misbehavior is often a challenge for teachers. Effective classroom behavior management strategies maximize academic instruction time and decrease disruptive behavior. One intervention that has proven to be effective in decreasing disruptive behavior, increasing prosocial behavior, and increasing on-task behavior in the general education classroom is tootling. There are no published studies that have applied tootling in a special education classroom, and this population could greatly benefit from such an intervention. The current study used a multiple baseline design across settings to examine the effectiveness of a tootling intervention in three special education classrooms with students who exhibit behavior difficulties. Results of the study demonstrated that the tootling intervention is effective in increasing on-task behavior with a sample of students in special education exhibiting behavioral difficulties The tootling intervention was also effective in decreasing disruptive behavior, and was moderately effective in increasing prosocial behavior. Additional research investigating tootling in a variety of settings and with a variety of individuals is needed to determine the effects of tootling on behavior.
Carlos J. Panahon
Date of Degree
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Ray, J.E. (2019). Evaluating the effects of tootling when implemented in special education classrooms providing behavior supports [Doctoral dissertation, Minnesota State University, Mankato]. Cornerstone: A Collection of Scholarly and Creative Works for Minnesota State University, Mankato. https://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/etds/958/
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