1st Student's Major


1st Student's College

Social and Behavioral Sciences

Students' Professional Biography

Zhen Yang (Rex) Chng is a senior at Minnesota State University, Mankato where he is majoring in Economics. His interest in development, environmental, and behavioral economics.

Mentor's Name

Kwang Woo (Ken) Park

Mentor's Email Address


Mentor's Department


Mentor's College

Social and Behavioral Sciences


Environmental issues have been widely reported in recent years. From climate change to plastic waste, environmental quality is deteriorating at an unprecedented speed in human history. Environmental degradation is believed to have tied to the different stages of a country’s economic growth, as the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis suggested. Despite the proliferation of research about the EKC hypothesis, no consensus has been reached in the field regarding the validation of the hypothesis. This paper employs time-series methods to empirically investigates the impacts of economic growth, trade openness, energy consumption, and foreign direct investment on environmental degradation in six selected ASEAN countries, from the period between 1971 to 2013, to examine the validity of the EKC hypothesis. First, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) tests were applied to test the stationarity of selected variables, Johansen Cointegration test and ARDL bound testing for cointegration test, ARDL models were constructed to find the potential long- and short-run relationships. The results showed the presence of EKC in Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, and no evidence of EKC was found in Malaysia, Philippines, and Indonesia.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.