Document Type

Unpublished Research Paper

Publication Date



The main goals of this study are: 1) to elaborate and draw comparisons between the discourse features of speakers at each sub-level, and between heritage and non-heritage speakers; 2) to compare the resulting conclusions with the level description of the Guidelines; 3) to contribute to the process of either validating or offering suggestions for the improvement of the descriptors included that pertain to the act of narrating and describing the past, which is so fundamental to proficiency at these two levels; and 4) to provide some extra insight into the process of learning how to talk about the past.


World Languages and Cultures