Power Allocation for Distributed BLUE Estimation with Full and Limited Feedback of CSI
This paper investigates the problem of adaptive power allocation for distributed best linear unbiased estimation (BLUE) of a random parameter at the fusion center (FC) of a wireless sensor network (WSN). An optimal power-allocation scheme is proposed that minimizes the L2-norm of the vector of local transmit powers, given a maximum variance for the BLUE estimator. This scheme results in the increased lifetime of the WSN compared to similar approaches that are based on the minimization of the sum of the local transmit powers. The limitation of the proposed optimal power-allocation scheme is that it requires the feedback of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) from the FC to local sensors, which is not practical in most applications of large-scale WSNs. In this paper, a limited-feedback strategy is proposed that eliminates this requirement by designing an optimal codebook for the FC using the generalized Lloyd algorithm with modified distortion metrics. Each sensor amplifies its analog noisy observation using a quantized version of its optimal amplification gain, which is received by the FC and used to estimate the unknown parameter.