1st Student's Major


1st Student's College

Social and Behavioral Sciences

Students' Professional Biography

Akmal Abdulmuminov is an undergraduate student at Minnesota State University-Mankato. He is an international student from Tajikistan. In 2009 he was a high school exchange student through FLEX (Future Leaders Exchange Program), U.S. State Department sponsored program, in St. Paul, Minnesota. After one academic exchange year in the States, Akmal went back to Tajikistan to graduate from high school and apply to college in California. Starting in a junior college in 2011 through 2013 he received his Associate in Arts degree from El Camino College-Torrance. He is currently majoring in International Relations and minoring in Accounting. He is currently serving as the General Secretary of International Students Association of MSU, Mankato. Akmal plans to join Masters of Accounting program here at MSU, Mankato upon graduation. He has been nominated for 2015 Student Leader Award in College of Social and Behavioral Sciences. In the summer of 2015 he will be working as the Orientation Peer Assistant in the New Student and Family Programs at MSU, Mankato. After earning his Master’s degree, he plans to get a job in one of major accounting firms in Minnesota.

Mentor's Name

Eiji Kawabata

Mentor's Email Address


Mentor's Department


Mentor's College

Social and Behavioral Sciences


Since the creation of Pakistan in 1947, Islam has played a major role in defining identity of people of Pakistan. General Zia-ul-Haq has played a major role in defining Pakistan’s national and political identity. His famous process of ruling is known as Islamization. He took several steps in doing so: first in July 1977 when he took control of the states, he established a close alliance with Jamaat-e-Islami. This put Pakistan’s national identity heavily along Islamic lines. Also under Zia-ul-Haq, all textbooks were rewritten with an Islamic ideological agenda. He increased the role of religious leaders and Islamic clerics in the civilian administration without compromising the superior status of the armed forces. One of the most Pakistani historian K.K. Aziz argued that these textbooks were targeted at supporting military rule in Pakistan, emphasizing hatred for Hindus, and glorifying jihad.

On political surface, Zia nominated representatives of the Islamic parties as judges of the Federal Sharia Court. This was a very blunt step by Zia. These people appointed for Federal Sharia Court did not have any secular knowledge of the world, rather very traditional knowledge. His military regime favored Islamist student groups and facilitated student-faculty clashes aimed to purging Pakistani universities of secular professors. Such professors were penalizedfor refusing to accept the official view of Pakistan as an Islamic state. This religious zeal was extended to Pakistan’s foreign policy as well.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.