Developing culturally responsive knowledge and practices for the online Spanish classroom is increasingly important as campuses across the country have moved to online and hybrid delivery due to the emergence across the world of the novel Coronavirus, Covid-19, in 2020, and continuing technological enhancements and opportunities to conduct successful classes in using an online or hybrid delivery model. While it was clear that faculty and staff would need support to develop their skills and knowledge for using new technologies and methods for teaching in the online environment, it was not as clear that designing a curricular experience that was culturally responsive would be of equal importance. Effective integration of technology is essential, but its effectiveness can be challenged by adequate access or by practices that lack culturally responsive knowledge or that do not take into account the great diversity of today's students and staff. This research project starts with two premises: (1) instructors can enhance classroom learning by developing culturally responsive knowledge about themselves and their students (Geneva Gay), and (2) instructors can increase the success of meeting the needs of students who bring a broad variety of experiences and diversity to the classroom and enhance classroom learning by designing a coherent and effective curriculum for online instruction (Mishra and Koehler). The purpose of this thesis is, then, to propose how to adapt a framework for technology integration (TPACK) for the context of CRT (Culturally Responsive Teaching environment) that is appropriate for online Spanish language classes at the university level in the United States. Sample practices, activities, and implications for implementing these two frameworks are presented and examined followed by the development of a model or set of practices for designing a different curricular experience rooted in CRT and best practices for online instruction of a second language (Spanish, in this case). This model integrates technology in a way that makes sense for the increasingly diverse students in the second-language Spanish classroom, and that the student experience is culturally relevant, the instructional practices are culturally responsive, delivery of the curriculum relies on best practices for technology integration for a culturally responsive learning environment.


Alfredo Duplat

Date of Degree




Document Type



Master of Science (MS)


Arts and Humanities



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In Copyright