The United States education system is purported to be an equalizer for students in terms of providing education, socialization, skills, and opportunities. It is, however, rife with inequality as youth socioeconomic status is largely a predictor for future economic success. Socioeconomic status further constrains their participation in enriching supplemental activities that foster meaningful development. Through a content analysis of published research, this paper specifically examines the value of outdoor adventure programming as a supplemental educational device to that of the classroom experience, particularly for low-income youth. Findings suggest that outdoor adventure programs are associated with positive social outcomes and successful programs develop and implement policies and practices attuned to diversity, inclusion, cultural competence, and equity.
Date of Degree
Master of Science (MS)
Sociology and Corrections
Social and Behavioral Sciences
McDonald, S. E. (2021). Exploring the opportunity and achievement gap: The capacity of inclusive outdoor education adventure programming in alleviating youth educational inequality [Master’s alternative plan paper, Minnesota State University, Mankato]. Cornerstone: A Collection of Scholarly and Creative Works for Minnesota State University, Mankato. https://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/etds/1144/