Radiation is a natural phenomenon in which energy is emitted in the form of waves or particles through a given medium. Radiation dosimetry is the method of analyzing and assessing this deposited emitted energy. How this emitted energy effects a given object when deposited has been a topic of interest in the fields of science and medicine. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the verification of electrons in air and determining their delivered dose rate. Using a linear accelerator which had its polarity flipped from producing positive ions to producing electrons, work to verify the production of electrons is undertaken. A Geiger-Mueller counter with a fixed radioactive reference source is used. Count rates are taken for various distances with results being compared with predictions using data obtained from the NIST-ESTAR database. Angular distribution is investigated using a similar method. Further work is conducted using Helmholtz coils to control beam direction via uniform magnetic field. Using a radiation safety badge at a given distance, a preliminary dose rate measurement is obtained. A novel approach to validate the production of electrons is achieved. At distances of 80 cm, 90 cm, and 100 cm, oriented at 0°, kinetic energies of 315±5 keV, 345±5 keV, and 360±5 keV, respectively, are measured. For the same distances, an increase in required kinetic energy is measured when the detector is oriented at an angle. At a distance of 100 cm oriented at 45°, a kinetic energy of 380±5 keV is measured, an increase from the 0° orientation. Results are consistent with distance calculations using data for electrons in dry air obtained from the NIST-ESTAR database, given for orientation at 0°. Preliminary results using Helmholtz coils for beam control show promise, but suggest further investigation is required. Radiation safety badge data shows 5-minute exposure to the beam energy exceeds the badge limit of 1000 Rad., demonstrating delivery of a high radiation dose.


Andrew Roberts

Committee Member

Analía Dall’Asén

Committee Member

Thomas Brown

Date of Degree




Document Type



Master of Science (MS)

Degree Program/Certificate



Physics and Astronomy


Science, Engineering and Technology

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



Rights Statement

In Copyright