The relationships and distinctions between Oneota tradition groups in southern Minnesota are not well understood. Two contemporaneous phases of the Oneota tradition in southern Minnesota, the Blue Earth and Spring Creek, which date, minimally, to the 14th and early 15th centuries, are represented by clusters of sites along the Blue Earth River Valley (the Center and Willow Creek localities) and near the junction of the Mississippi and Cannon rivers (the Red Wing region). This thesis attempts to address some basic questions with regards to the differences and similarities between Spring Creek and Blue Earth phase groups in terms of end scraper and lithic raw material use. Macromorphological end scraper attributes that relate to material choice, core reduction, tool modification, maintenance, use, and discard are measured and compared. Experimental, ethnographic, and theoretical sources, as well as corollary measurements of end scrapers from two Woodland tradition sites, are used to identify and interpret relevant similarities and differences between end scrapers from Blue Earth and Spring Creek phase sites.


Ronald C. Schirmer

Committee Member

Kathleen T. Blue

Committee Member

Stephen J. Stoynoff

Committee Member

Dan Wendt

Date of Degree




Document Type



Master of Science (MS)

Program of Study

Applied Anthropology


Social and Behavioral Sciences



Rights Statement

In Copyright