Disruptive behaviors are some of the most difficult behaviors for teachers to address in schools. They can take multiple forms in the classroom, and can impact the student displaying them, as well the rest of the learning environment in terms of academic engagement. Disruptive behaviors are believed to be displayed by students for the purpose of attaining social positive and social negative reinforcement. These behaviors also tend to fall into a higher level of need based on MTSS/PBIS tiered support models. Typically, disruptive behaviors fall within Tier II level of need, where universal supports are not enough, but intensive, individualized supports are not necessary. Tier II is most efficient when implemented using a standard protocol approach, which requires one to two interventions in this tier being trained in most staff. One such intervention is Class Pass, a targeted intervention which gives students daily break passes that they can exchange for short breaks from academic work at times of their choosing during the school day. In its four applications in the literature, two versions of Class Pass exist, one which includes the component of saving unused passes to exchange for backup reinforcers, and one which excludes this component. All applications have shown to decrease students’ disruptive behaviors and increase academic engagement. To date, no research has compared the two versions of Class Pass. This study directly compared both versions of Class Pass to attempt determine which version was more fit for a standard protocol approach to Tier II, based on their impacts on disruptive behaviors and academic engagement.


Carlos Panahon

Committee Member

Kevin Filter

Committee Member

Angelica Aguirre

Committee Member

Mark Savignano

Date of Degree




Document Type



Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Program of Study

School Psychology


Humanities and Social Sciences



Rights Statement

In Copyright