Reading is a vital skill and failing to learn how to read has consequences beyond the walls of the classroom. The importance of reading and its link to later success in life has gained the attention of many, including Congress, over the past couple of decades. Yet, despite an intense research focus and large amounts of time and resources being devoted to improving reading performance, too many American students continue to struggle to obtain reading proficiency. One possible explanation for this disconnect maybe the failure to match evidence-based instruction to struggling readers based on their specific reading needs. The 4-Box Instructional Decision Making Model developed by Harkin in 2008 is a promising tool that may improve the ability of educators to match struggling readers to effective interventions. The 4-Box Instructional Decision Making Model is discussed and its effectiveness in identifying students in need of reading interventions and linking them to evidence-based reading interventions are displayed.


Daniel Houlihan

First Committee Member

Kathy Bertsch

Second Committee Member

Rosemary Krwczyk

Third Committee Member

Dana Wagner

Date of Degree




Document Type



Doctor of Education (EdD)




Social and Behavioral Sciences

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License