Individuals identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning or unsure are often at greater risk of developing psychopathology. Minnesota youth, grades 9 and 11, completed the Minnesota Student Survey in 2013. Data were analyzed to ascertain differences within the aforementioned sexual minority groups as well as comparisons to heterosexual youth on questions adapted from the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Short Screener (GAIN-SS). The GAIN-SS consists of self-reported items regarding internalizing and externalizing behaviors. In the present study, bisexual youth reported the most externalizing behaviors and the fewest internalizing behaviors. Heterosexual youth reported the fewest externalizing behaviors, but the most internalizing. County type of residence (rural, micropolitian, and metropolitan) was also addressed, but main effects were mostly insignificant. Archival nature of data, small effect sizes, and response bias limit implications from the present study. Future research should clarify the relationship between individuals identifying as bisexual and the high response for externalizing behaviors compared to low response for internalizing behaviors. An emphasis can then be placed on policy and program aims of sexual minority youth.


Eric Sprankle

Committee Member

Shawna Peterson

Committee Member

Jessica Flatequal

Date of Degree




Document Type



Master of Arts (MA)




Social and Behavioral Sciences

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License


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