Examinations that consist of varied formats are distributed to students across educational institutions to measure individual performance and achievement. Previous research studies that investigated the effects of cramming and the usage of different exam formats were examined and summarized in a comprehensive literature review. Findings suggest that students commonly use the cramming study strategy as a method of preparation for exams. Yet the effectiveness of cramming remains a subject of controversy among educators. Little to no research has been conducted to determine whether cramming is engaged in response to a given exam format. This author concludes from a review of the literature that there may be a correlation between cramming engagement and examination format. There is no evidence to corroborate this hypothesis, but implications for further research are suggested.


Daniel Houlihan

Committee Member

Jasper Hunt

Committee Member

Barry Ries

Date of Degree




Document Type



Master of Science (MS)


Graduate Studies and Research

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License


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