Although the worldwide spread of English language and the relationship between non-dominant (local) varieties of English language and standardized English have been widely debated (e.g., Canagarajah, 2006; Jenkins, 2014; Kachru, 1992; Saraceni, 2015), the voices of Afghan EFL university teachers have not been reported, especially regarding the teaching of writing through the lens of World Englishes. Drawing data from 18 university teachers from three universities in Afghanistan, this study sought to address the issue using a mixed method design. The findings show that the teachers who took part in the research understand the concept of WEs. The study also found that the majority of the teachers had a positive attitude towards code-switching between target language and native language. In addition, the results of the current study demonstrated that most of the teachers hold positive views towards the use of local/regional varieties of English in the teaching of writing. However, they pointed out several barriers such as time constraints, complexity of local/regional varieties, and their lack of awareness of the mentioned varieties which prevent them from using these varieties in the teaching of writing. Moreover, the data revealed that Afghan university teachers are affected by ideologies of native speakerism, incorrect Englishes, and standardization. The findings suggest that professional development programs are needed to build Afghan EFL teachers’ professional self-esteem, address the challenges and issues they pointed out, and inform them that standardization and linguistic superiority of native speakers are ideological and political, not normal and natural. Teachers’ insights, attitudes, and suggestions deserve attention so that more effective and practical curriculum and pedagogical model could be designed and developed.


Sarah Henderson Lee

Committee Member

Nancy Drescher

Date of Degree




Document Type



Master of Arts (MA)




Arts and Humanities



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